What are Questionnaires? Why does Questionnaires matter in Research?

MOST ESSENTIAL LEARNING COMPETENCY

1. apply the different methods of data collection and presentation .

OBJECTIVES:

1. Define the different research instruments
2. Differentiate the different research instruments
3. Determine the guidelines in making research instruments

WHAT’S IN: A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. Questionnaires can be thought of as a kind of written interview. They can be carried out face to face, by telephone, computer or post. Questionnaires provide a relatively cheap, quick and efficient way of obtaining large amounts of information from a large sample of people.

➢ Questionnaires

Closed form/ close-ended: Calls for short, checkmark responses. It is easy to fill out, takes little time, keeps the respondents on the subject, relatively objective, and is easy to tabulate and analyze.

• True or False test
• Yes or No test
• Multiple choice
• Statement with options (strongly agree, agree, not sure)

Open form/ open-ended: Calls for a free response in the respondent’s own words. No clues are given. The respondents reveal their frame of reference and possibly the reasons for their responses.

• Essay type questions
• Completion test (Science is _____)
• Definition of a term
• “Why did you choose to do your graduate work at this college?”

Guidelines in using Questionnaires

1. Clarity of Language – It should lead the respondents to give specific respondents and generate the desired information given.

2. Singleness of Purpose – It should elicit single piece of information or single response so that it will not confuse the respondent and make interpretation easy

3. Relevant to the Objective of the Study – Questions that do not serve the objective of the study should be eliminated.

4. Correct Grammar – To do this, the questionnaire must be edited or floated to

try-out respondents

 

Principles to Consider in Constructing Questionnaires

1. Define or qualify terms that could easily be misinterpreted.

2. Be careful in using descriptive adjectives and adverbs that have no agreed-upon meaning.

3. Be careful of inadequate alternatives.

4. Beware of double negatives.

5. Avoid the double-barreled questions.

6. When asking for ratings or comparisons a point of reference is necessary.

7. Avoid unwarranted assumptions.

8. Phrase questions so that they are appropriate for all respondents.

9. Design question that will give a complete answer.

10.Provide for the systematic quantification of responses.

11.Consider the possibility of classifying the respondents yourself, rather than having the respondents choose categories.

 

Characteristics of a Good Questionnaire

1. It deals with significant topic.

2. It seeks only that information which cannot be obtained from other resources.

3. It is as short as possible, and only long enough to get the essential data.

4. It is attractively and neatly printed and duplicated.

5. Directions are clear and complete. Important terms are defined.

6. The questions are objective, with no leading suggestions as to the responses desired.

7. Questions are presented in good psychological order, proceeding from general to more specific responses.

8. It is easy to tabulate and interpret.

 

Advantages of Using Questionnaires

1. Facilitates data gathering

2. Is easy to test data for reliability and validity

3. Is less time-consuming than interview and observation

4. Preserves the anonymity and confidentiality of the respondents’ reactions and answers


Disadvantages of Using Questionnaires

1. Printing and mailing are costly.

2. Response rate may be low.

3. Respondents may provide only socially acceptable answers.

4. There is less chance to clarify ambiguous answers.

5. Respondents must be literate and with no physical handicaps.

6. Rate of retrieval can be low because retrieval itself is difficult.

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