1. Define the different research instruments.
2. Differentiate the different research instruments.
3. Determine the guidelines in making research instruments.
WHAT’S IN: Data collection is a process of collecting information from all the relevant sources to find answers to the research problem, test the hypothesis and evaluate the outcomes. Data collection methods can be divided into two categories: secondary methods of data collection and primary methods of data collection.
• The purposes of interview are to verify information gathered from written sources; to clarify points of information; to update information; and to collect data.
• Whom to interview. The interviewee must be:
When Conducting an Interview...
1. Arrive promptly.
2. Be equipped with whatever materials you need to conduct the interview.
3. Begin the interview by thanking him for consenting to the interview.
4. As a general rule, limit your questions to those on the agreed upon list.
5. Leave most of the talking to the interviewee.
6. Take notes rapidly, accurately, and as conspicuously as possible.
7. End the interview at the promised time.
8. As soon as possible after the interview, write out your notes neatly and in greater detail. If you use a tape recorder, transcribe your notes on paper.
Types of Interview
1. Structured or standardized – The questions, sequence, and wordings are fixed. It uses an interview schedule.
2. Unstructured or unstandardized – Is flexible and open. The contents, sequence, and wordings are up to the interviewer. It uses an interview guideb.
3. Telephone interview – Not used by all researchers because not all people have telephones (landline or mobile) but the major advantages of which include low cost, rapid collection, and relatively high response rates.
a: Interview schedule is a research instrument made up by a set of carefully prepared and logically ordered questions which the researcher asks of the respondents.
b: Interview guide is a listing of the topics that will be taken up during the interview process
Some “Do’s” and “Don’t’s” for the Interviewer
• To ensure maximum success the interviewer must have a good bearing and a neat, pleasing personal appearance.
• He must conduct himself in ways that characterize proper behavior.
• Mannerism should be avoided as it could distract the interviewee.
The following are the “don’ts” in interviewing:
1. Don’t argue.
2. Don’t appear erudite or learned.
3. Don’t use big words.
4. Don’t irritate worn spots.
5. Don’t tell inappropriate stories.
6. Don’t talk to much.
7. Be courteous in asking.
8. Make your question brief.
➢ Rating Scale
• Scaling – the process of attempting to develop complete measurement or rank or unit measurement of phenomena. Rating scales have several limitations in additional to the difficulty of clearly defining the trait or characteristic to be evaluated.
• There are three forms of scaling:
1. Thurstone Technique - The first method of attitude assessment
• A number of statements, usually 20 or more are gathered that expresses various points of view toward a group, institution, idea, or practice.
2. Likert Method
• The most widely used rating scale for summated ratings
• Can be performed without a panel of judges and has yielded scores very similar to those obtained by the Thurstone method.
• It is important that they express definite favorableness or unfavorableness to a particular point of view and that the number of favorable and unfavorable statements is equal.
3. Semantic Differential
• Similar to Likert method in that the respondents indicate an attitude or opinion between two extreme choices.
• Usually provides the individual seven-point scale with two adjectives at the either end of the scale, such as good-bad, unhealthy-healthy, clean-dirty.